Received: 19 April 2021
Accepted: 19 July 2021
First Online: 5 August 2021
: The purpose of the study was explained in local dialect to all adult patients, to the parents or legal guardians of paediatric patients, or to adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years old. Written informed consent was obtained from all adult participants, or from the parents or legal guardians accompanying children aged < 12 years old, before collection of blood samples. For adolescents aged 12–18 years old, their assent was also obtained in addition to their parents’ or legal guardian’s consent. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the institutional ethics committee of the University of Nouakchott Al-Aasriya, Nouakchott, Mauritania (approval no. 112/12-09-2014/USTM, 003/2020/CE/UNA) and the institutional review board of the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Marseille, France (Comité consultative de déontologie et d’éthique approval no. 15/12/2012).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.