Funding for this research was provided by:
Stanley Medical Research Institute
Received: 30 March 2021
Accepted: 1 October 2021
First Online: 16 November 2021
: All patients participating in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network provided written informed consent and volunteered for the naturalistic follow-up study in which clinical state and medications were prospectively assessed. Ethical approval was granted by the local ethics committees at each of the seven participating academic sites: NIMH Bethesda, the University Hospitals of Los Angeles, Dallas, Cincinnati (all USA), Utrecht (The Netherlands), Freiburg and Munich (both Germany).
: All authors contributed to and approved the final manuscript and gave their consent for publication.
: Robert Post has received speaker’s honoraria over the past 3 years from AstraZeneca, Validus, Sunovion, Takeda, Pamlabs. Ralph Kupka has received honoraria and royalties over the past 3 years from UpToDate and De Tijdstroom/Boom publishers. Susan McElroy is a consultant to or member of the scientific advisory boards of Bracket, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., MedAvante, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma America, Myriad, Novo Nordisk, Shire, and Sunovion. She is a principal or co-investigator on studies sponsored by the Allergan, Brainsway, Marriott Foundation, Myriad, National Institute of Mental Health, Novo Nordisk, Shire, and Sunovion. She is also an inventor on United States Patent No. 6,323,236 B2, Use of Sulfamate Derivatives for Treating Impulse Control Disorders, and along with the patent’s assignee, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, has received payments from Johnson & Johnson, which has exclusive rights under the patent. Mark A. Frye has received grant support from AssureRx, Mayo Foundation, Myriad, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), NationalInstitute of Mental Health (NIMH), Pfizer. He has served as a consultant (Mayo) to Janssen, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Myriad, Neuralstem Inc., Otsuka American Pharmaceutical, Sunovion, Teva Pharmaceuticals. His employer Mayo Clinic has a financial interest in AssureRX and the technology referenced in this publication/presentation. Heinz Grunze received grants/research support, consulting fees and honoraria within the last 3 years from Gedeon Richter, Janssen-Cilag, and Servier. Trisha Suppes, MD, PhD, in the past 36 months, has reported: Grants from Merck, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Health, VA Cooperative Studies Program, and VA OR&D PRIME Care, Palo Alto Health Sciences, Stanley Medical Research Institute, Pathways Genomics. Consulting fees from Allergan, Inc., Intracellular Therapies, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Impel NeuroPharma Inc. Honoraria from CME Institute (Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.) and CMEology. Royalties from American Psychiatric Association Publishing, Hogrefe Publishing, Jones and Bartlett, and Wolters Kluwer Health (UpToDate). Travel reimbursement from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Paul Keck Jr has been reimbursed for consulting to Otsuka and Lyndra. He is a co- inventor on United States Patent No. 6387956: Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck, PE Jr. (University of Cincinnati) Methods of treating obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder comprises the step of administering an effective amount of tramadol to an individual. Filed March 25, 1999; approved May 14, 2002. Dr. Keck has received no financial gain from this patent. W.A. Nolen has received grants from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, the European Union; has received honoraria/speaker’s fees over the past 5 years from Lundbeck and Aristo Pharma, and has served over the past 5 years as consultant for Daleco Pharma.