Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (19K07213)
the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (17mk0101095h0001)
he Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (18mk0101095h0002)
the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan (H24-iyakuwakate-011)
Received: 30 November 2019
Accepted: 12 May 2020
First Online: 24 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Tohoku University School of Medicine (2017–1-506). No administrative permissions or licenses were required to access the data we used in our study because the data was available for free download from the PMDA website. No consent to participate was required due to the retrospective nature of this study.
: Not applicable.
: Makoto Miyazaki is an employee of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Makoto Miyazaki is a graduate student at Tohoku University and has contributed to the present study independently of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.