Funding for this research was provided by:
Lung Cancer Research Foundation (NA)
National Cancer Institute (P50CA196530, P30CA016359)
Defense Health Agency (W81XWH-16-1-0160)
Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C-AACR-DT17-15)
Navigate Biosciences (NA)
Received: 6 November 2018
Accepted: 20 February 2019
First Online: 8 March 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All tissue was used after approval from the Yale Human Investigation Committee protocols #9505008219 and #1608018220, which approved the patient consent forms or in some cases waiver of consent.
: Not applicable.
: Kurt Schalper: Consultant or advisor for Celgene, Moderna Therapeutics, Shattuck Labs, AstraZeneca, Pierre-Fabre and Abbvie. Research funding by Navigate Biopharma, Vasculox/Tioma, Tesaro, Takeda, Moderna Therapeutics, Surface Oncology, Pierre-Fabre, Merck and Bristol-Myers Squibb.David Rimm: Consultant or advisor for Amgen, AstraZeneca, Agendia, Biocept, BMS, Cell Signaling Technology, Cepheid, Daiichi Sankyo, GSK, InVicro/Konica/ Minolta, Merck, NanoString, Perkin Elmer, PAIGE.AI, and Ultivue. Equity holder in PixelGear (start-up company related to direct tissue imaging) Research funding from AstraZeneca, Cepheid, Navigate/Novartis, NextCure, Lilly, Ultivue, Ventana and Perkin Elmer/Akoya.Mehmet Altan: Research funding from BMS and Lilly.Vamsidhar Velcheti: Consultant or advisory role for Genentech, BMS, AstraZeneca, Merck, Nektar therapeutics, Reddy Labs, Celgene, Foundation Medicine and Takeda Oncology.Roy Herbst: Consultant or advisory role for Abbvie Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Biodesix, Bristol-Myers Squibb , Eli Lilly and Company, EMD Serono, Genentech/Roche, Heat Biologics, Loxo Oncology, Merck and Company, Nektar, NextCure, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Seattle Genetics, Shire PLC, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Symphogen, Tesaro, Neon Therapeutics, Infinity Pharmaceuticals. Research support from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck and Company. Member of the board of directors (non-executive/ independent) for Junshi Pharmaceuticals.
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