Funding for this research was provided by:
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPG8L1341)
Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 110-2314-B-182A-124-MY3)
Received: 14 July 2022
Accepted: 14 July 2023
First Online: 27 July 2023
: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) Ethical Committee (CGMH IRB No. 202200848B0) and followed the Declaration of Helsinki. Due to the retrospective study design, no informed consent was obtained.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Hsin-Ching Lin received two research grants from Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA. However, Intuitive Surgical Inc. had no role in this study and the manuscript. Drs. Chung-Wei Lin, Pei-Wen Lin, Li-Wen Chiu, Han-Tan Chai, Chun-Tuan Chang, Michael Friedman, Anna M. Salapatasand Sara Rahavi-Ezabadi declare that they have no competing interests.