Funding for this research was provided by:
National Science Foundation (NSF DBI-0400776)
Nationla Science Foundation (NSF DBI-1726368)
NIH (R21EB023104-02, 1R21DA039621-01, 1S10OD019973-01)
Air Force Medical Service (FA8650-17-2-6836)
Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering Initiative Seed Grant
The Duquesne University Hunkele Dreaded Disease Award
Samuel and Emma Winters Foundation
Charles Henry Leach II Fund
Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Award
Duquesne University Inaugural Provost's Interdisciplinary Research Consortia Grant
Received: 17 May 2019
Accepted: 26 June 2019
First Online: 5 July 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Duquesne University approved the protocol (# 1501–01). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 220 g were used in this study (Hilltop Lab Animals, Inc., Scottdale, PA). Rats were maintained on a 12:12 h light-dark cycle and were given unrestricted access to purified chow (D10012G, Research Diets, Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) and water. All efforts were made to minimize animal suffering and to reduce the number of animals used.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.