Text and Data Mining valid from 2020-04-17
Received: 7 September 2019
Accepted: 7 April 2020
First Online: 17 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate and consent for publication
: In this manuscript secondary analyses were conducted using the officially published PISA 2015 dataset. This dataset was downloaded as a public use file from the OECD website (ExternalRef removed). Therefore, neither consent to participate or consent for publication nor ethics approval were required for the reported analyses.
: All authors declare that they have no competing interests.