Received: 17 December 2019
Accepted: 15 October 2020
First Online: 23 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to paricipate
: We rely on data from the ICILS 2013 study, which conforms to IEA ethical standards. The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in Melbourne served as the international study center for ICILS, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.
: We provide our consent to publish this manuscript upon publication in the Springer open journal LSA.
: The authors declare that they have no financial or non-financial competing interests.