Funding for this research was provided by:
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Received: 28 May 2020
Accepted: 11 August 2020
First Online: 26 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital, approval number 29-39) and with the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. As the study used anonymized data, informed consent was not required.
: Not applicable
: Dr. Kohsaka received an unrestricted research grant for the Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, from Bayer Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, and Daiichi Sankyo, Co., Ltd. Other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Dr. Shiraishi is affiliated with an endowed department by Nippon Shinyaku CO., Ltd., and received a research grant from the SECOM Science and Technology Foundation and an honorarium from Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. There are no patents, products in development, or marketed products to declare.