Funding for this research was provided by:
Montreal Heart Institute Foundation
Richard I. Kaufman Endowment Fund in Anesthesia and Critical Care
Received: 23 May 2021
Accepted: 14 November 2021
First Online: 27 November 2021
: The Local Institutional Review Board for human subjects approved the study protocol (IRB#: MP-33-2016-1964) and informed consent was obtained before inclusion.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Denault is speaker and consultant for CAE Healthcare, and speaker for Edwards and Masimo. He received a research grant from Edwards (2019).