Funding for this research was provided by:
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR PS 159668)
Received: 8 December 2020
Accepted: 15 March 2021
First Online: 28 April 2021
: Research ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta Health Research Ethics Board (PRO 00083651) and Veritas Research Ethics Board (Ontario) (16111–13:21:103–01-2017). Informed consent was provided by the patient at the time of first intake, which allows data to be collected and used for clinical and research purposes. These data were provided by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) administrative databases in Ontario and all data was released as de-identified data.
: This study made use of de-identified data from the ICES Data Repository, which is managed by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences with support from its funders and partners: Canada’s Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR), the Ontario SPOR Support Unit, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Government of Ontario. The opinions, results and conclusions reported are those of the authors. No endorsement by ICES or any of its funders or partners is intended or should be inferred. Parts of this material are based on data and information compiled and provided by CIHI. However, the analyses, conclusions, opinions and statements expressed herein are those of the author, and not necessarily those of CIHI.
: JRBD is a former board member for a major cannbis company. JGH has worked as a paid advisor and speaker for Canadian Cannabis Clinics. JRBD has a financial interest in Aurora Cannabis Inc. DTE and JRBD hold a Mitacs Grant with Aurora as a partner. Mitacs is a national, not-for-profit organization that works with universities, private companies, and both federal and provincial governments, to build partnerships and administer research funding that supports industrial and social innovation in Canada. DTE does not have any past or present financial interest in the companies involved. CL, DV, JKMS, and EH have no conflicts of interest to declare. Moreover, the above mentioned entities, research funders and companies listed were not involved in any aspect of the design or write-up of the study and all analysis was performed independent from the funders and companies.