Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17J00472, 16H04057)
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (16H06286)
Ito Kagaku Shinkou Kai
Received: 19 November 2019
Accepted: 23 April 2020
First Online: 7 May 2020
Availability of data and materials
: Data used in this study can be obtained by contacting the following sources: Van Allen Probes Science Operation Centers located at University of Iowa (ExternalRef removed) for RBSP/EMFISIS; Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (ExternalRef removed) for THEMIS; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan for ETS-VIII (contact: email@example.com) and QZS-1 (contact: firstname.lastname@example.org); International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University for ASB, EWA, CHD, TIK, and KTN (ExternalRef removed); WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto (ExternalRef removed) for SYM-H; OMNI web (ExternalRef removed) for solar wind data.
: There is no competing interests.
: This study was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows (17J00472). MN is supported by JSPS, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (16H04057) and Specially Promoted Research (16H06286) and by Ito Kagaku Shinkou Kai. K. H. Glassmeier, U. Auster, and W. Baumjohann for the use of FGM data provided under the lead of the Technical University of Braunschweig and with financial support through the German Ministry for Economy and Technology and the German Center for Aviation and Space (DLR) under contract 50 OC 0302.
: SI analyzed data and drafted the manuscript. SI, NM, NH, MA, and HM processed and calibrated the QZS-1 data. NM, KK, and HM processed and calibrated the ETS-VIII data. AY provided MAGDAS data. NM and AY helped to interpret the results. CS and RJM made substantial contributions to the acquisition of RBSP/EMFISIS data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.