Funding for this research was provided by:
Hoya (H-ZG3B, 1-87LK)
Hong Kong Polytechnic University (BD90, ZVS5, 1-BBC0, ZVN1)
Research Impact Fund (R5032-18)
Henry G. Leong Endowed Professorship in Elderly Vision Health (8-847)
Hong Kong Government (InnoHK initiative)
Received: 9 January 2023
Accepted: 22 August 2023
First Online: 15 September 2023
: All subjects and their parents or guardians signed an informed assent and consent. The study protocol was approved by Institutional Review Board of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HSEARS20140630003) and was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: RKC, DYT, CT and CL received financial support from HOYA lens Thailand Ltd. CT and CL are the consultants of HOYA lens Thailand Ltd and have a patent for spectacle lens (US11029540). DYT and CT have a patent for an optical system (US10898407). HZ, ZL and YZ declare that they have no competing interests.