Received: 9 July 2018
Accepted: 5 August 2018
First Online: 3 September 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This research has received ethics approval and consent. This study received Johns Hopkins School of Medicine IRB approval (IRB00149689).
: Not applicable.
: BJ: Consultant for Longeviti Neuro Solutions.AKA: None.CCZ: received travel grant to attend resident education course from Globus and Nuvasive. She is supported by an AO Spine fellowship grant.SK: None.AZ: None.CM: Consultant for Augmedics.JG: None.AMB: None.AB: None.NC: employee, owns stock, and receives royalties from Globus Medical; patent holder, Globus Medical.NT: is an inventor of a device manufactured by Globus Medical, Inc., which was used in the study discussed in this publication. He is entitled to royalty payments on future sales of the device and he is a paid consultant to Globus Medical, Inc. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by the Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies.