Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP49817)
Received: 1 January 2018
Accepted: 1 May 2018
First Online: 11 May 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for the study procedures was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of California Davis or the Ethics Committee at Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Finland, as well as the University of Malawi, College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee, or the Ghana Health Service and the University of Ghana Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research. All participants provided written informed consent, by signature or thumb-print of a parent on behalf of the children. Children’s assent was indicated by their willingness to participate in the activities.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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