Received: 6 May 2020
Accepted: 20 October 2020
First Online: 6 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The protocol for the 2015 KMIS was approved by the Kenyatta National Hospital/University of Nairobi Scientific and Ethics Review Committee and ICF International’s Institutional Review Board. The protocol for the 2017 MMIS was approved by the National Health Sciences Research Committee in Malawi and the institutional review board at ICF. The protocol for the 2015–2016 TDHS-MIS was approved by institutional review boards of both the Medical Research Council of Tanzania and ICF. The protocol for the 2016 UDHS was reviewed and approved by the ICF Institutional Review Board. Verbal informed consent was obtained from a child’s parent or guardian before tests were conducted in each of the surveys.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.