Received: 10 July 2019
Accepted: 7 October 2019
First Online: 21 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study received clearance from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University Ethical Committee (Certificate number 298), National Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Tanzania certificate number 938, and Norwegian Regional Ethical Committee (REK 2011/1068 and 2016/920). Permission to conduct the study was sought from Regional and district medical officers and from respective village governments. All participating mothers/primary caretakers gave written informed consent. In the case of illiterate caregivers, the right thumbprint was used as a signature. Children who were found with syphilis were immediately referred to the nearby clinic for treatment following national guidelines. HIV-infected children who were not enrolled in care were triaged into HIV care and treatment clinics.
: Not applicable; the manuscript does not contain any individual personal data.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.