Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17K16272)
Received: 10 June 2020
Accepted: 22 July 2020
First Online: 3 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: We received ethical approval to conduct this study from Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu; the approval no. is 338/2018. The Ethical Board of the School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health also approved this study (approval no. NU-TMGH-124). Opt-out consent method to participate was used. Posters containing the information about the study were displayed in the hospital for the parents of the children with contact email and phone numbers of the investigators. The parents were requested to contact the investigators if they did not want their children’s urine samples to be included in the study and they were informed that only non-identifiable information of the children would be collected from the laboratory for the study.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.