Funding for this research was provided by:
Health Assessment Lab (2018-2019 Alvin R. Tarlov & John E. Ware Jr. Doctoral Dissertation Award in Patient Reported Outcomes)
Received: 23 September 2019
Accepted: 5 May 2020
First Online: 1 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This research was approved as non-human subject research by the Boston University Medical Campus (BUMC) Institutional Review Board (H-37414).
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Shanafelt is co-inventor of the Well-being Index instruments and the Participatory Management Leadership Index. Mayo Clinic holds the copyright for these instruments and has licensed them for use outside of Mayo Clinic. Dr. Shanafelt receives a portion of any royalties paid to Mayo Clinic. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.