Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 5 September 2022
Accepted: 3 July 2023
First Online: 19 July 2023
: The study was approved by a centralised independent review board in the US (approval number: 20190129) and by local ethical review boards in France, Germany, and Canada prior to the conduct of any study-related activities. All participants provided informed consent before participating in the study.
: Not applicable.
: Christel Naujoks, Claudio Spera, Judit Banhazi and Francesco Patalano are employees of Novartis Pharma AG. Nicola Williamson, Helena Bradley, Melissa Barclay and Joel Sims are employees of Adelphi Values, a health outcomes agency commissioned to conduct research by companies in the pharmaceuticals industry. Adelphi Values received funding from Novartis to conduct the research summarized in this article. Todd Durham was employed by Novartis as an advisor and received a fee for their involvement. Professors Fischer, Audo and Dr Jane Green were paid consultants of Adelphi Values on behalf of Novartis as scientific advisors and received a fee for their involvement. Professor Fischer further reports consulting fees from Advent France Biotechnology, Alphasights, Atheneum, Axiom Healthcare Strategies, Biogen, Decision Resources, Dialectica, Frontera Therapeutics, Janssen Research & Development, Navigant, Novartis, Roche, Sirion, STZ eyetrial. Professor Audo is also a consultant for Novartis, Sparing Vision, Roche, 4DMT and Biogen. Dr. Kay reports consultancy/investigator fees from AGTC, Foundation Fighting Blindness, Alkeus, Gyroscope, REGENXBIO, Nightstar Therapeutics/Biogen, Spark therapeutics, Novartis, Iveric Bio, ProQR Therapeutics, MeiraGTx, Janssen, Atsena Therapeutics, 4D Molecular Therapeutics and Kodiak. The authors declare that there are no other competing interests.