Received: 21 February 2022
Accepted: 22 July 2022
First Online: 1 November 2022
: The study has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and later amendments. IBM Marketscan data are completely de-identified administrative claims data, and it does not contain any human participants or animals, therefore, the ethical approval is not required by the institutional review board at the university of Alabama at Birmingham. As the data is fully anonymized, the University of Alabama at Birmingham institutional review board exempted the informed consent, and the formal informed consent was not needed.
: Not applicable.
: Financial competing interests: No for all authors. Non-financial competing interests: Huifeng Yun: While working on this project at UAB, Dr.Yun received research support from Pfizer. Inc for unrelated work. She recently joined GSK, but the entire work was conducted at UAB. None for other coauthors.