Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (P01 CA87969, UM1 CA186107, P01 CA55075, U01 CA167552, R01 CA118553, R01 CA169141, R01 CA137178, K24 DK098311, R35 CA197735, R01 CA151993, K07 CA190673, R03 CA197879, R21 CA222940, K07 CA188126, R21 CA230873)
Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C-AACR-DT22-17)
American Association for Cancer Research (NA)
Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (NA)
National Natural Science Foundation of China
China Scholarship Council
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JP2017-775, JP201860083, JP201960541)
Uehara Memorial Foundation
American Society of Clinical Oncology
Finnish cultural foundation
Massachusetts General Hospital
the Project P Fund
The Friends of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Bennett Family Fund
Colorectal Cancer Alliance
Mishima Kaiun Memorial Foundation (NA)
Received: 20 August 2021
Accepted: 7 June 2022
First Online: 20 June 2022
: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and those of participating registries as required. All participants provided informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: A.T.C. previously served as a consultant for Bayer Pharma AG, Pfizer Inc., and Janssen. This study was not funded by Bayer Pharma AG, Pfizer Inc., or Janssen. M.G. receives research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Merck. This study was not funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb or Merck. C.S.F. has been a consultant for Eli Lilly and Co; Entrinsic Health Solutions, Inc; Pfizer Inc; Merck & Co., Inc; Sanofi S.A.; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd; Genentech. Inc; Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Bayer Pharma AG; Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Gilead Sciences, Inc; Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc; and Taiho Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. C.S.F. is currently employed by Genentech, Roche. J.A.M. has also served as an advisor/consultant to Ignyta, Array Pharmaceutical, and Cota. R.N. is currently employed by Pfizer Inc.; she contributed to this study before she became an employee of Pfizer Inc. This study was not funded by any of these commercial entities. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.Use of standardized official symbolsWe use HUGO (Human Genome Organisation)-approved official symbols for genes and gene products, including BRAF, CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, DNMT1, IGF2, KRAS, MLH1, NEUROG1, PIK3CA, RUNX3, SOCS1, and TP53; all of which are described at ExternalRef removed. The official symbols are italicized to differentiate from non-italicized colloquial names that are used along with the official symbols. This format enables readers to familiarize themselves with the official symbols for genes and gene products together with common colloquial names.