Funding for this research was provided by:
Mark Foundation For Cancer Research
National Institute for Health Research
Medical Research Council
Cancer Research UK
Received: 22 October 2019
Revised: 19 December 2019
Accepted: 22 January 2020
First Online: 14 February 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The scientific guarantor of this publication is Evis Sala.
: The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies: GDS has received educational grants from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Intuitive Surgical; consultancy fees from Merck, Pfizer, EUSA Pharma, and Cambridge Medical Robotics; travel expenses from Pfizer; and speaker fees from Pfizer. ES has received speaker fees from Siemens Healthineers. None of the other authors declares any conflict of interest.
: One of the authors has significant statistical expertise of the basic statistical methods employed in this manuscript.
: Written informed consent was not required for this study because the article type is a systematic review and meta-analysis.
: Ethical approval was not required for this study because the article type is a systematic review and meta-analysis.
: • Multicenter study